Adverse reactions to antibiotics

Despite high efficiency in treatment of many infectious diseases, scope of application of antibiotics is considerably limited to the collateral reactions arising against treatment with use of these preparations. Collateral reactions to antibiotics can be the diversified: from a simple nausea before irreversible changes of a red marrow. A principal cause of development of collateral reactions to antibiotics is infringement of principles of their use, is frequent by a carelessness as attending physician and the patient.

What is the collateral reactions and on what their occurrence depends?

Collateral reactions in medicine and pharmacology name some effects or the phenomena of pathological character arising against application of this or that medical product. Collateral reactions to antibiotics are always connected with their reception and, as a rule, pass after the termination of treatment or after preparation change.

Occurrence of collateral reactions to antibiotics are a difficult pathophysiological process in development which the set of factors takes part. On the one hand the risk of occurrence of collateral reactions is defined by properties of the antibiotic, and on the other hand reaction to it of an organism of the patient.

For example, that fact is known that penicillin concerns to low toxicity to antibiotics (it is prominent feature of penicillin), however in sensitized an organism penicillin can cause occurrence of the allergic reaction which development depends on specific features of an organism.

Also occurrence of collateral reactions depends on a dose of a used antibiotic and from duration of treatment, In most cases frequency and weight of by-effects on antibiotics increases simultaneously with increase in a dose or duration of treatment.

Occurrence of some collateral reactions depends on the medicinal form of a used antibiotic (a tablet or an injection). For example, a nausea as the collateral phenomenon most typical for antibiotics, accepted inside.

What can be collateral reactions at use of antibiotics?

Collateral reactions to reception of antibiotics can be the diversified, and the same collateral reactions, in different cases, can be different in force. More low we will describe the most widespread collateral reactions connected with reception of antibiotics.

Frustration from digestive system in the form of a nausea, vomiting, a diarrhea, locks arise at use of many preparations and are connected, mainly, with irritation of a mucous membrane of a digestive path antibiotics. As a rule, the nausea, vomiting or discomfort in a stomach arise right after drug intake (antibiotic) and pass in process of a medicine absorption in intestines. Nausea or vomiting elimination can be reached at the expense of transition from tablets on an injection of antibiotics or (if it is possible) reception of antibiotics after meal (the food protects mucous a digestive path from direct contact to antibiotics).

If digestive frustration are connected with irritating action of an antibiotic they pass after the terminations of course of treatment. However the reason of frustration of digestion can be and absolutely other: infringement of structure of microflora of intestines (an intestinal dysbacteriosis).

Intestinal the dysbacteriosis is the specific by-effect arising against treatment by antibiotics. Infringement of structure of microflora of intestines is connected with destruction useful strains the bacteria occupying intestines under the influence of antibiotics. Fault to it is the wide spectrum of action of some antibiotics which includes also representatives of normal microflora of intestines. It means that antibiotics destroy not only harmful microbes, but also useful, sensitive to the given preparation. Symptoms of a dysbacteriosis of intestines (a diarrhea, locks, a stomach swelling) appear after a while after an initiation of treatment and often don't pass after its termination.

Heavy display of a dysbacteriosis of intestines is a lack of vitamin K which is shown in the form of bleedings from a nose, gums, occurrence of hypodermic hematomas. The greatest danger of occurrence of a dysbacteriosis of intestines is connected with use of strong antibiotics and in particular their forms for intake (a tablet, a capsule).

In view of risk of an establishment of a dysbacteriosis of intestines treatment by antibiotics should be accompanied by treatment on restoration of microflora of intestines. Medicines (Lineks, Hilak), containing strains useful bacteria, unreceptive to action of the majority of antibiotics are for this purpose used. In another way avoidance of a dysbacteriosis of intestines use of antibiotics of a narrow spectrum of action which destroy only microbes, infecting agents is and don't break structure of microflora of intestines.

Allergic reactions can arise on all known antibiotics as all of them are substances alien for our organism. The allergy to antibiotics is one of kinds of a medicinal allergy.

Be shown an allergy can in the diversified image: occurrence rash on a skin, a skin itch, the small tortoiseshell, angioneurotic a hypostasis, anaphylactic shock.

More often the allergy is observed against treatment by antibiotics from group of penicillin or cephalosporins. Thus intensity of allergic reaction can be so high that possibility of use of these preparations is completely excluded. In view of a generality of structure of penicillin and cephalosporins there can be a cross allergy, that is an organism of the patient sensitive to penicillin answers with an allergy to introduction cephalosporins.

Overcoming of a medicinal allergy to antibiotics is reached at the expense of preparation change. For example, in the presence of an allergy to their penicillin replace with macroleads.

In certain cases the medicinal allergy to antibiotics can accept difficult character and threaten life of the patient. Such forms of an allergy are anaphylactic shock (generalized allergic reaction), Stephen-Johns's syndrome (necrosis the top layers of a skin), a haemolytic anemia.

The candidiasis of an oral cavity and vagina is one more widespread collateral reaction to reception of antibiotics. As it is known, the candidiasis (milkwoman) it also an infectious disease, but is caused it not by bacteria, and the fungi tolerant to action of usual antibiotics. In our organism growth of fungi restrains populations of bacteria, however at prescription of antibiotics the structure of normal microflora of our organism (an oral cavity, a vagina, intestines) is broken, useful bacteria perish, and fungi indifferent in relation to used antibiotics have an opportunity actively to breed. Thus, the milkwoman is one of dysbacteriosis display.

For preventive maintenance and treatment of the milkwoman simultaneously with antibiotics it is recommended to accept antifungal preparations. Also probably local treatment and use of local antiseptic tanks and antifungal preparations.

Nephrotoxic and hepatotoxic effects consist in defeat of fabrics of a liver and kidneys because of toxic action of antibiotics. Nephrotoxic and hepatotoxic effects, basically, depend on a used dose of an antibiotic and a condition of an organism of the patient.

The greatest risk of defeat of a liver and kidneys is observed at use of the big doses of antibiotics at patients with already existing illnesses of these bodies (a pyelonephritis, glomerulonephritis, a hepatitis).

Nephrotoxicity it is shown by infringement of function of kidneys: strong thirst, increase or reduction of quantity of allocated urine, a pain in the field of a waist, increase of level of a Creatinine and urea in blood.

Liver defeat is shown by jaundice occurrence, body rise in temperature, decolouration feces and urine dimness (typical displays of a hepatitis).

The greatest gepato - and nephrotoxic effect antibiotics from group aminoglycosides, antitubercular preparations, antibiotics from group tetracycline possess.

The neurotoxic effect is characterized by defeat of nervous system. The greatest neurotoxic potential antibiotics from group aminoglycosides, tetracycline possess. Easy forms of a neurotoxicity are shown by a headache, dizzinesses. Neurotoxicity hard cases are shown by irreversible damage of an acoustical nerve and a vestibular mechanism (use aminoglycosides at children), optic nerves.

It is important to notice that neurotoxic potential of antibiotics inversely proportional to age of the patient: the greatest danger of damage of nervous system under the influence of antibiotics is observed at children of early age.

Gematologichesky infringements – concern the heaviest collateral reactions to antibiotics. Gematologichesky infringements can be shown in the form of a haemolytic anemia when blood cells collapse because of subsidence on them of molecules of antibiotics or because of toxic influence of antibiotics on cages of a red marrow (an aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis). Such crushing defeat of a marrow can be observed, for example, at use of Levomitsetina (chloramphenicol).

Local reactions to a place of introduction of antibiotics depend on a method of introduction of an antibiotic. Many antibiotics at introduction in an organism, are capable to irritate fabrics, causing local inflammatory reactions, formation of abscesses, an allergy.

At intramuscular introduction of antibiotics formation of painful infiltrate (consolidation) on an injection place is often observed. In certain cases (at sterility non-observance) on an injection place the suppuration (abscess) can be formed.

At intravenous introduction of antibiotics probably development of an inflammation of walls of veins: the phlebitis shown by occurrence condensed painful strands on a course of veins.

Use of ointments or aerosols with antibiotics can cause a dermatitis or a conjunctivitis.

Antibiotics and pregnancy

As it is known, antibiotics render the greatest action on fabrics and cages being in active division and development. For this reason use of any antibiotics during pregnancy and feeding by a breast is extremely undesirable. The Most part of antibiotics existing at present haven't passed corresponding checks on use during pregnancy and consequently their use during pregnancy or feeding by a breast it should be spent carefully and only in cases when the risk of refusal of antibiotics exceeds risk of a tresspass to the child.

During pregnancy and feeding by a breast use of antibiotics from group tetracyclines and aminoglycosides categorically is forbidden.

For reception of fuller information about collateral reaction of antibiotics it is recommended to study the loose leaf of the got medicine attentively. Also it is desirable to ask the doctor on possibility of development of by-effects and tactics of your actions in that case.

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