History of the genetically modified organisms and products

Promptly increasing population of our planet has induced scientists and manufacturers not only to intensify cultivation of agricultural crops and cattle, but also to begin search of essentially new approaches to development of a raw-material base of the begun century.

The best find in the decision of the given problem was wide application of the gene engineering which has provided creation of genetically modified sources of food (GMI). For today the set of grades of plants, exposed is known to genetic updating for firmness increase to herbicides and insects, increase of oiliness, sugar content, the maintenance of iron and calcium, increase volatility and decrease in rates of maturing.

GMO are the transgene organisms which hereditary material is changed by a method of gene engineering for the purpose of giving of desirable properties by it.

Despite huge potential of gene engineering and its already real achievements, use of the genno-modified foodstuff it is perceived in the world not unequivocally. In mass-media regularly there are articles and reportings on products mutants thus the consumer doesn't have a full representation about a problem, ignorance and misunderstanding sensation of fear more likely starts to prevail.

There are two contradictory parties. One of them represent it is glad scientists and transnational corporations (multinational corporation) – manufacturers GMF having the representations in many countries and sponsoring expensive laboratories, receiving commercial superprofits, I operate in the most important areas of human life: foodstuff, pharmacology and agriculture. GMF – the big and perspective business. In the world more than 60 million in hectare is occupied under transgene cultures: from them of 66 % in the USA, 22 % in Argentina. Today 63 % of a soya, 24 % of corn, 64 % of a clap – transgene. Laboratory tests have shown that about 60-75 % of all the imported Russian Federations of foodstuff contain GMO components. Under forecasts to 2005. The world market of transgene production will reach 8 billion $, and to 2010 – 25 billion $.

But supporters of bioengineering prefer to refer to noble stimulus of their activity. For today GMO – the cheapest and economically safe (as they consider) a way for manufacture of foodstuff. New technologies will allow to solve a problem of shortage of the foodstuffs, differently to the population of the Earth not to survive. Today us already 6 billion, and in 2020 By estimations the CART – will be 7 billion In the world of 800 million starving and every day 20000 persons die of hunger. For last 20 years we have lost more than 15 % of a soil layer, and the most part of suitable soils to cultivation are already involved in agricultural production. Thus the mankind doesn't have not enough squirrel, its world deficiency makes 35-40 million tons/years and increases annually by 2-3 %.

One of decisions of the created global problem – the gene engineering, whose successes open essentially new possibilities for increase of efficiency of manufacture and decrease in economic losses.

On the other hand against GMO the numerous ecological organizations, association «Doctors and scientists against GMF», a number of the religious organizations, manufacturers of agricultural fertilizers and pest control means act.

Biotechnology – rather young area of applied biology studying possibilities of application and developing concrete recommendations of use of biological objects, means and processes in practical activities, i.e. developing ways and schemes of reception of almost valuable substances on the basis of cultivation of the whole unicells and free-cages, metaphytes (plants and animals).

Historically the biotechnology has evolved from traditional medical and biologic manufactures (baking of bread, winemaking, brewing, reception of sour-milk products, food vinegar). Especially biotechnology rapid development connect with an era of antibiotics which has come in 40-50th. The following mark in development concerns to 60th – manufacture of fodder yeast and amino acids. The biotechnology has received a new impulse in the beginning of 70th thanks to occurrence of its such branch as gene engineering. Achievements in this area not only have expanded a spectrum of the microbiological industry, but have radically changed methodology of search and selection of microorganisms – producers. The human insulin produced by bacteria E.coli, and also manufacturing of medicines, vitamins, enzymes, vaccines became the first genno-engineering product. The cellular engineering vigorously develops in too time. The microbic producer replenishes with a new source of reception of useful substances – culture of the isolated cages and fabrics of plants and animals. On this basis essentially new methods of selection eukaryotes are developed. Especially big successes it was possible to reach in area microclonal reproduction of plants and to receive plants with new properties.

Actually use of mutations, i.e. selection, people have started to be engaged long before Darwin and Mendel. In second half of XX-th century a material for selection began to prepare it is artificial, generating mutations specially, influencing radiation or colchicine and selecting casually appeared positive signs.

In 60-70th The XX-th centuries have been developed the basic methods of gene engineering – branches of the molecular biology which primary goal is designing in vitro (out of a live organism) new functionally active genetic structures (recombinant DNA) and creation of organisms with new properties.

The gene engineering besides theoretical problems – studying of the structurally functional organization genome various organisms – solves set of practical problems. So cultures of cages of the animals producing biologically active proteins of the person are received strains bacterial yeast. Both transgene animals and the plants containing and making the alien genetic information.

In 1983 Scientists, studying a soil bacterium which forms outgrowths on trunks of trees and bushes, have found out that it transfers a fragment of own DNA to a kernel of a vegetative cage where it is built in a chromosome and distinguished as the. From the moment of this opening the history of gene engineering of plants also has begun. The first in result of artificial manipulations with genes tobacco, impregnable for the wreckers, then genno-modified tomato (in 1994 has turned out. Firms Monsanto), then corn, a soya, a rape, a cucumber, a potato, a beet, apples and many other things.

Now to allocate and collect genes in one design, to transfer them to the necessary organism – routine work. It is the same selection, only more progressive and more jeweler. Scientists have learned to do so that the gene worked in the necessary bodies and fabrics (roots, tubers, leaves, grains) and in due time (at day illumination); and the new transgene grade can be received for 4-5 years while on deducing of a new grade of plants by a classical method (change of wide group of genes by means of crossing, radiation or chemical substances, hoping for casual combinations of signs in posterity and selection of plants with the necessary properties) is required more than 10 years.

As a whole, the problem of transgene products all over the world remains very sharp and discussions around GMO won't cease still for a long time since advantage of their use are obvious, and the remote consequences of their action, both on ecology, and on health of the person are less clear.

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