The use of antibiotics in the treatment of respiratory tract infections

Diseases of respiratory ways concern the most widespread diseases of the person in any age categories. In overwhelming majority of cases of disease of respiratory ways have infectious character, that is are caused by various microbes.

The infectious nature of illness, as it is known, assumes possibility to use in its treatment of various antibiotics. About rationality antibiotic therapy in treatment of infectious diseases of respiratory ways we also will talk in this article.

Diseases of respiratory ways

Nose cavities concern respiratory ways, paranasal bosoms, a nasopharynx, the bottom departments of a throat, a throat, a trachea, bronchial tubes, alveoluses of lungs. The reasons

Diseases of respiratory bodies can be the diversified: an infection, chemical irritation, allergic reaction. Concerning infectious diseases the diversified microbes can be an etiology: viruses, bacteria, fungi.

Etiology definition plays an important role in appointment of adequate treatment. In case of infectious diseases the basic question demanding the decision it: it is necessary or not use antibiotics? More low, on an example of some most widespread illnesses of respiratory ways, we will describe the basic ways of the decision of this problem.

Before to pass to consideration of principles of treatment of various illnesses of respiratory ways, it is necessary to consider the problem etiologic accessories of infections of respiratory ways, and also a problem of infectious associations.

What microbes cause illnesses of respiratory ways and why important it is the nobility?

Every minute on a mucous membrane of our respiratory ways thousand various microbes are besieged. Most dangerous of them are the various viruses capable for some hours to cause development of illness. On the second place on danger there are bacteria. Most less often illnesses of respiratory ways are caused by fungi. However such division of infections of respiratory ways purely theoretical: in a reality the majority of infections have the mixed character. The most widespread type of microbic association is viruses + bacteria. In this pair viruses attack the first and cause primary defeat of respiratory ways – create favorable conditions for joining of a bacterial infection which will define the further development of illness.

If to consider this question from the point of view of rationality of use of antibiotics it is important to notice that antibiotic therapy it is shown only in case of bacterial infections and virusno-bacterial associations.

Antibiotics at a cold

Among all illnesses of respiratory ways the cold is the most widespread. In most cases cold activators are various viruses or allergens. However secondary joining of a bacterial infection which complicates a clinical course is often observed.

At a usual cold (watery allocation from a nose) it is not necessary to use antibiotics. Indications for use of antibiotics this development of a chronic cold. The diagnosis of a chronic cold is established ENT by the doctor after detailed inspection of the patient.

Antibiotics at a sinusitis

Sinusitis (inflammations paranasal bosoms) often accompanies a cold or other kinds of an infection of respiratory ways. The basic symptoms of a sinusitis this feeling of a pain or pressure in the field of cheeks or a forehead over a nose, nasal a nose, rise in temperature. Unlike a usual cold, treatment of a sinusitis practically always means use of antibiotics as in overwhelming majority of cases an etiology are bacteria.

In the form of capsules and tablets use of antibiotics is preferable to intake. The antibiotic type, a dosage and duration of treatment are defined by the doctor the expert observing the patient.

Recently, because of prevalence increase chlamydia and mycoplasma infections, in treatment of a sinusitis antibiotics from group of macroleads are even more often used. At children appointment of short courses of treatment as an antibiotic is shown by Azitromitsinom.

Antibiotics at quinsy and a pharyngitis

Quinsy (tonsillitis) represents an inflammation of palatal almonds. More often quinsy has bacterial character. A sign of the bacterial nature of quinsy are occurrences of a purulent touch or purulent stoppers on almonds. In certain cases a touch or stoppers appear only after some days after an onset of the illness is means that the bacterial has joined a primary virus infection.

Use of antibiotics at quinsy is expedient only in case of heavy and often repeating quinsy – in such situations to use antibiotics it is necessary for the prevention of complications of this illness. Signs of weight of quinsy this substantial growth of the sizes of almonds, severe pains at swallowing, a throat hypostasis, high temperature, deterioration of the general condition of the patient. Children of the frequent have streptococcal quinsy which can proceed as a scarlet fever. At a scarlet fever simultaneously with quinsy at the patient appear rash on a skin.

The suspicion on a scarlet fever or a heavy current of usual quinsy is an indication for use of antibiotics. In most cases, both usual quinsy, and a scarlet fever antibiotics from group of penicillin are used. In the absence of possibility to use penicillin, antibiotics from group cephalosporin or macroleads can be used.

Reception of antibiotics (penicillin) can proceed and after the termination of the basic treatment of quinsy. In this case antibiotics appoint for the prevention of occurrence of autoimmune complications of illness.

The pharyngitis represents an inflammation of a mucous membrane of a throat. Pharyngitis symptoms this burning and tickle in a throat, a pain at the swallowing, an unpleasant smell from a mouth. In case of a pharyngitis use of antibiotics is shown only at chronic forms of illness and presence of obvious signs of an infection. The illness form, type of an antibiotic and duration of course of treatment steal up individually for each patient.

Antibiotics in laryngitis and tracheitis treatment

The laryngitis (inflammation of a mucous membrane of a throat) and tracheitis (inflammation of a mucous membrane of a trachea) meet often enough as companions various cold illnesses. The main symptom of a laryngitis is hoarseness of a voice. At children against a laryngitis the short wind can develop. For a tracheitis occurrence of strong chest cough which is accompanied by severe pains behind a breast is peculiar. Both diseases proceed against rise in temperature and deterioration of the general condition of the patient.

In most cases the primary reason of a laryngitis and a tracheitis are viruses, however is very fast to a virus infection the bacterial joins.

Use of antibiotics in laryngitis and tracheitis treatment is shown only in hard cases of illnesses, in the presence of obvious signs of a bacterial infection: allocation of a purulent phlegm, strong rise in temperature, a fever. In these cases it is expedient to use antibiotics from group of penicillin. At an inefficiency of natural penicillin it is possible to use antibiotics from group of semisynthetic penicillin or other groups.

Antibiotics in treatment of illnesses of bronchial tubes

Among illnesses of bronchial tubes, the most widespread is the following:

Bronchitis – a sharp or chronic inflammation of a mucous membrane of bronchial tubes of mainly bacterial nature.

In spite of the fact that in many cases the primary reason of a bronchitis is the virus infection, the further development of illness is defined joining of a bacterial infection. Signs of a bacterial bronchitis arise for 3-4 day of illness: deterioration of the general condition of the patient, occurrence of a plentiful purulent phlegm, rise in temperature. In such cases it is desirable to spend treatment by antibiotics for the prevention of complications of a bronchitis and illness transition to the chronic form.

The chronic obstructive bronchitis and COPD is the most widespread forms of illnesses of bronchial tubes at adults. The bacterial infection plays an important role in development of these illnesses as the chronic bacterial inflammation promotes gradual narrowing of a gleam of bronchial tubes and replacement of fabrics of lungs by a connecting fabric. All cases of a chronic obstructive bronchitis and COPD (chronic obstructive illness of lungs) demand carrying out of course of treatment by antibiotics. More often antibiotics from group of semisynthetic penicillin and cephalosporin are used.

The bronchial asthma is shown by occurrence of periodic attacks of an asthma and chronic cough. A role of the infectious factor in development of a bronchial asthma of a bycicle in case of an infectious-allergic asthma at adults: the chronic bacterial infection promotes an establishment of the raised reactance of bronchial tubes. For this reason course of treatment by antibiotics is an integral part of complex treatment of an asthma. For avoidance of aggravations of an asthma during treatment antibiotics allergic safe for the patient are used.

Antibiotics in pneumonia treatment

The pneumonia is characterized by an inflammation of fabrics of lungs. In most cases the inflammation at a pneumonia has bacterial character.

Prescription of antibiotics is a basic method of treatment of a pneumonia. As a matter of fact, to the invention of antibiotics the pneumonia was considered as illness with the raised potential of a lethality. Presently, thanks to the modern antibiotics, deadly outcomes from a pneumonia became the big rarity.

In treatment of heavy forms of a pneumonia forms of antibiotics for intravenous introduction are used.

In connection with the big prevalence of an atypical pneumonia at children (mycoplasma and chlamydia the pneumonia) at this category of patients accepts use of antibiotics from group of macroleads.

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